Saul Kripke claims that the statement
- Objects have their proper names necessarily.
- Kripkean proper names (or the belief in them) entail that they necessarily designate the essences of the objects named by them.
- Names and the naming-relation are necessary and constitute the necessity of the reference-relation.
- The relation between named object and name/namer in the reference-relation is necessary. The name and the naming process pick out only their named object’s essence, not its contingent properties specified and picked out by contingent descriptions and concepts.
- The reference-relation between proper names (or their use) and their objects is that they name their objects necessarily.
- Objects have their names essentially.
Quine, W. V. O. – (1966) The Ways of Paradox and Other Essays, Random House